Nepal: A Data Overview

A comprehensive data journal with an objective to
make data free for everyone collected and
compiled in one single address. Explore with us.

Nepal in Data


Situated in southern flank of the Himalayas, Nepal is a landlocked country, enclosed between the Tibetan plateau and the Gangetic plains in the Central Himalayas. Geographically it lies between 800 4′ & 880 12′ East longitude and 260 22′ & 300 27′ North latitude. It is roughly rectangular in shape and has an area of 147,641.71 (corrected recently by developing new map of Nepal from 147,181 sq. Km), extending roughly 885 km from East to West and varies from 145-241 km North-South. Out of the total area, 4,000 sq. Km is covered by water. The country is bordered by India in the east, west and south (1,930 km) while big mountains towards China segregate the north side (1,497 km). Altitude in Nepal varies from 67m above sea level at Kechana Kalan (Jhapa) in southeastern Terai to Mt. Sagarmatha 8,848 m, the highest peak in the world located at Solukhumbu in north eastern Himalayas.

Topographically, the country can be divided into four main regions starting from the North, viz. 1) The Himalayan Region and Inner Himalayas (altitude ranging 16,000 to 29,028 ft. (4878 to 8848 meters) perpetually covered with snow, 2) The Sub-Himalayas or the mountainous region (altitude ranging 6000 to 16,000 ft. (1,828 to 4,876 meters), 3) The valley basin, Dun or Inner Terai (altitude ranging 900 to 2,000 ft. (274 to 609 meters), and 4) The Low plain region – Terai (altitude ranging 300 to 900 ft. (91 to 274 meters). But for all practical purposes, the country is divided in to three broad ecological zones:

  • The Mountain region, comprising 35.2% of the country’s land surface, is sparsely inhabited. The highest peaks of the Himalayas like Sagaramatha (29028ft. /8848m), Kanchanjunga (28,208 ft./8,586m), Lhotse (27,809 ft./ 8,516m) lie along the northern border.
  • The Hill region comprises 41.7% of Nepal’s land area. The Mahabharat range forms this region. To the south of it lies the Churia range. The two ranges enclose between them valleys of various widths and altitudes, known as Duns or the inner Terai. Some of the valleys in this region are Kathmandu, Pokhara and Surkhet.
  • The Terai comprises 23.1% of the total land area. It has a width ranging from 16 miles (25.6km) to 20 miles (32km). The terai zone ranges in altitude of less than 610 meters with most of the fertile land and dense forest the country.

Apart from the ecological divisions, administratively there are 7 Provinces, 77 Districts and 753 local governments. Local government is composed of 6 metropolitan cities, 11 sub-metropolitan cities, 276 municipalities, 460 sub-municipalities and 6743 wards.

The geographical features of Nepal not only manifest the diversity but also reflect distinctive patterns of settlements, population distribution, culture and economy. Out of total land area Terai comprises only 23.1 percent, whereas the share of Mountain is 41.7 percent and Hill is 35.2 percent respectively.

Nepal has many high, beautiful and attractive mountains, out of thirty one mountain peaks over 7,600 meters in the world, twenty two lie in Nepal. Further, among the fourteen snow-topped mountains over 8,000 meters in the world, eight are located in Nepal with the highest peak Sagarmatha (Everest) 8,848 meters situated in the region.


Nepal has extreme climatic variations, which is associated with the diverse nature of its topography and altitude and pronounced by dry and wet monsoon seasons. Average rainfall of between 1,400 and 2,500 mm annually predominate over most of the central Himalayan region. The percentage of annual rainfall brought by the monsoon between June and September is higher in Terai (81%) and eastern and central hills (79%) than in the western hills (67%) and in the Trans Himalayas (55%). In Terai and eastern/central hills, winters are very dry (2.4%), and the remaining rain occurs in spring (11%) and autumn (7.7%). (Shah and Singh, 2001)

Climatically, Nepal may be divided into three types

Subtropical: The Terai, the Inner Terai and lower foothills gave a sub-tropical climate. The temperature ranges from 5° c to 47° c. Rainfall in this area is between 80″ and 100″ (2000mm and 2500mm).

Temperate: The area between the Mahabharat range and Himalayas has a temperate climate, the temperature varies between 0° C and 30° C. Average rainfall is about 60″ (1500mm).

Alpine: The Himalayas and Inner Himalayas have an Alpine, Dry & Arid type of climate. The temperature is several degrees below zero during winter and never above 16° c during summer. The average rainfall is 20″ (500mms) and in the higher regions precipitation is in the form of snow.

Social and Cultural Diversity

Nepal is inhabited by multi-lingual people, there are 123 spoken languages and 125 ethnic/caste groups.With majority of population speaking Nepali (44.6%) as their mother toungue, there are many other linguistic groups like Maithili, Bhojpuri, Newari, Tharu, Tamang, Rai, Magar, etc. Ethnically the largest group is Chettri (16.6%) followed by Hilll Brahmins (12.2%), Magars (7.12%), Tharus (6.56%), Tamangs (5.81%) etc. In terms of religion, Hindu (81.3%) is predominant followed by Buddism and Islam.

Nepalese culture linked to various ethnic and social values are remarkably rich and fascinating. One of the specific features of Nepalese culture is religious harmony between the Hindu and the Buddhist. Although there is diversity in religion, ethnicity, language, customs, life-style, traditions, folklore of people there is always unity in culture. Festivals are a prominent aspect of Nepalese life style and different types of festivals are observed throughout the year. Most of the Nepalese festivals are of religious as well as of social values and either of the Hindu and Buddhist origin is celebrated in common by the people with enthusiasm.

Federal Parliament

The constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, envisions bicameral legislature. According to the Article 83 of the Constitution, the House of Representatives (also known as lower house) and the National Assembly (also known as Upper house) are named as Federal Parliament. Of the total 334 members in the Federal Parliament, there are 112 women members i.e. 33.53%.

According to constitution, Lower house of the federal parliament has altogether 275 members among which 165 members (i.e. 60% of the total members) are elected through the first past the post (FPTP) electoral system and remaining 110 members (i.e. 40% of the total members) through the proportional representation (PR) electoral system. The term of this House is for Five years.

Human Development

Nepal’s national HDI score stood at 0.587 in 2019, which puts the country in the medium human development category. Its score in urban areas (0.647) surpasses that of rural areas (0.561) with a large urban-rural gap. Higher per capita income, and better access to education and health services in urban areas explain such striking disparities. The HDI value also varies across provinces. As expected, Bagmati province scores the highest (0.66), followed by Gandaki province (0.62). Province 2 scores the lowest (0.51) followed by Karnali (0.538). This indicates the uneven distribution of development outcomes across different parts of the country. Among the ecological regions, areas defined as the hills continue to surpass mountain areas and the Tarai, a pattern similar to findings in previous Nepal Human Development Reports regardless of methodological differences. Contrary to the common perception that people in the mountains are poorer than those in the Tarai, these two regions score at the same level on the HDI (0.56) and lag behind the hills

Country Overview

Area (  148,603.97
Capital Kathmandu
Administrative Division
Districts 77
Metropolitan City 6
Sub-Metropolitan City 11
Municipality 276
Gaun Palika 460
Total No. of Wards 6743
Voters and Election 2074
Total no. of voters 14,072,424
Male 7,079,152
Female 6,993,127
TG 144
Constituenties 165
Total Population 26,494,504
Male 12,849,041
Female 13,645,463
Sex Ratio (M/F) 94.2
Number of Household 5,424,465
Average Household Size 4.88
Population Density (persons/ 180
Population by Type of Local Unit
Metropolitan City 2,399,457
Sub-Metropolitan City 1,556,513
Municipality 12,558,330
Gaun Palika 9,730,528
Under 14 Population 34.90%
Population 15-59 yrs 57%
Elderly Population 60+ 8.10%
Annual Growth Rate 1.35%
Household by Ownership of House (2011)
Own 4,623,653
Rented 694,701
Household using wood/firewood as type of cooking fuel 3,470,224
Household using Electricity as type of cooking fuel 131,596
Household with access to safe drinking water* 2,591,379
Household with access to Toilet Facilities 3318514
Household without access to Toilet Facilities 2,069,812
Household with access to Internet 180,746
Household with access to Mobile Phone 3,504,929
Household with access to Radio 2756325
Household with access to Television 1,976,603
Household with access to Electricity for lighting 3,647,746
Household by Type of Foundation of House
Household with Mud bonded bricks/stone as foundation of house 2,397,441
Household with Cement bonded bricks/ stone as type of foundation of house 952,702
RCC with pillar 539,004
Wooden pillar 1,350,151
Household with Female ownership in
House & land 580,757
Land only 488,314
Neither house nor land 4,310,560
Socio-Economic Indicators
Literacy (%) (NMICS 2019)
Total 90.3
Male 88.2
Female 92.7
Number of Schools (Public) 2018/19
L_Basic 28,660
U_Basic 11,664
Basic 28,811
Secondary 6,623
Higher Secondary 3,005
Number of Schools (Private)
L_Basic 6,007
U_Basic 4,401
Basic 6,030
Secondary 3,362
Higher Secondary 866
Number of Students (Public)
L_Basic 2,793,142
U_Basic 1,393,617
Secondary 808,577
Higher Secondary 555,739
Number of Students (Private)
L_Basic 937,460
U_Basic 431,160
Secondary 218,935
Higher Secondary 75,797
Agriculture (FY 017/18)
Production of Major Cereal Crops (MT)
Paddy 5,151,924.92
Maize 2,596,841.132
Wheat 1,973,151.033
Production of Major Cash Crops (MT)
Oil Seed 245,866.9576
Potato 2,881,828.826
Sugarcane 3,679,507.553
Production of Pulses 368,740
Production of Spices 474,349
Production of Vegetables (MT) 3,958,230.444
Productio of Milk (MT) 2,092,403
Production Eggs in number (000) 1,511,483
Production of Fish (Kg) 58,443,292.42
Meat Production (MT) 346,179
Production of Wool (MT) 594,639
Citrus Fruits# 245,176.2073
Winter Fruits** 108,314.9459
Summer Fruits*** 733,439.4356
Annual Sales of Chemical Fertilizers 364,020.07
Health Service
Number of Hospitals 122
Primary health care center (PHCC) 200
Health Care Centers 3,809
Female Health Care Volunteer 49,001
Road Connectivity
Total Strategic Road Length (Km) 13,447.61
Population Influenced per Km of Road 151,655
Road Density (Km/100 995

Provinces in Data

Province 1

Lumbini Province

Province 2

Karnali Province

Bagmati Province


Gandaki Province

in Data

Human Development Index 2019

Life Expectancy at Birth (years)

Gender Inequality Index

Percapita GDP in (US $)

Percapita GNI (US $)

Sector-wise Data Overview of Nepal 

Impact of the COVID-19 crisis on income reduction by Province
Data source: The Impact of COVID-19 on Households in Nepal
Data source: The Impact of COVID-19 on Households in Nepal
Data Source: Stastical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2075/76
Data Source: A Year in Review FY 2019/20; NEA
Data Source: Stastical Information on Nepalese Agriculture 2075/76
Data Source: A Year in Review FY 2019/20; NEA
Data source: Economic Survey 2076/77; MoF
Data source: Nepal Rastra Bank
Data source: Nepal Labour Migration Report 2020
Data Source:
Data Source:
Data Source: Economic_Survey_2076-77
Data Source: NHDR 2020

Fast Facts of Nepal

Nepal Outlook compiles key indicators based upon recently updated research and survey documents published and endorsed by Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal Government in a most easiest and clear format.


We also help you get any data, report and research materials upon request at a minimum service charge.


Population Below Poverty Line


Skilled Attendant in Delivery


Household Receive Remittance


Contraceptive Prevalence Rate


Hydro-power Potential (MW)




Literacy Rate (NMICS 2019)


Foreign Employment


Popn with Access to Electricity


Total SRN
Road (km)


Household with Internet Facility


Popn Influenced per Km of Road

Data Leader, 21 Years in a Row

Focusing on various sectors related to development of the country, our team has been actively involved in disseminating information about districts since 1999 AD through various editions of Data Profile’s namely District Development Profile of Nepal (2001), District Demographic Profile of Nepal (2002), District Development Profile of Nepal (2004), National Policies of Nepal, Development Profile of Nepal (2008) & Energy Outlook of Nepal (2011).

Development Profile of Nepal Book
Enerty Outlook of Nepal Book

The Right Choice

Share us your contact details to discuss on how we can work together on your research and study projects. We come and discuss your problem statements and provide expert consulting to derive right process and solution for your business.