Province 1: A Data Overview

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Province 1


Province 1 lies between 860 1′ & 880 3′ East longitude and 280 2′ & 260 3′ North latitude. It has an area of 25, out of which 17.16% land is covered by forest. It is bordered by India in the east and south and Bagmati Province and Province 2 in the west, while big mountains towards China segregate the north side. Two major points of topographic importance lies in the Province – Kechana Kawal (Jhapa) 67m above sea level in southeastern Terai and Mt. Sagarmatha 8,848 m, the highest peak in the world located at Solukhumbu in north eastern Himalayas.

Topographically, the province can be divided into four main regions starting from the North, viz. 1) The Himalayan Region and Inner Himalayas, 2) The Sub-Himalayas or the mountainous region, 3) The valley basin, Dun or Inner Terai, and 4) The Low plain region – Terai.

• The Himalayan region, comprising 40.29% of the Province land surface, is sparsely inhabited. The highest peaks of the Himalayas like Sagaramatha (29028ft. /8848m), Kanchanjunga (28,208 ft./8,586m), Lhotse (27,809 ft./ 8,516m), Yalungkang (8,505m), Makalu (8463m), Choyu (8201m) lie along the northern border.
• The Hill region comprises 33.53% of Province land area.
• The Inner Terai region comprises 7.96% of Province land area. Similarly,
• The Terai region comprises 18.21% of the total Provincial land area. The terai zone ranges in altitude of less than 610 meters with most of the fertile land and dense forest the country.
Apart from the ecological divisions, administratively there are 14 Districts. As per the new constitutional provision there are 137 local governments composed of 1 metropolitan city, 2 sub-metropolitan cities, 46 municipalities and 88 sub-municipalities with 1157 wards with 6043 elected members.


Province 1 has climatic variations, which is associated with the diverse nature of its topography and altitude pronounced by dry and wet monsoon seasons. Province 1 has an average rainfall of between 110-300 mm in Terai and inner Terai, 27.5-230mm in mid and high mountains and 15-20mm in Himalayan region.

Climatically, Province 1 may be divided into three types

Subtropical: The Terai, the Inner Terai and lower foothills gave a sub-tropical climate. The temperature ranges from 200 c to 250 c. Average annual rainfall in this area is in between 110 to 300cm.

Temperate: The area between the Mahabharat range and Himalayas has a temperate climate, the temperature varies between 100 C and 200 C. Average rainfall is about 27.5 to 230 cm.

Alpine: The Himalayas and Inner Himalayas have an Alpine, Dry & Arid type of climate. The temperature is 30 to 100. The average annual rainfall is 15-20cm and in the higher regions precipitation is in the form of snow.


There are 123 spoken languages and 125 ethnic/caste groups in Nepal. Among various languages spoken there are 93 spoken languages in Province 1. Majority of population speak Nepali (42.7%) as their mother toungue. Many other linguistic groups like Maithili (11.2%), Limbu (7.3%), Tharu (3.9%), Bantawa (2.9) are inhabited in the province. Ethnically there are 122 ethnic groups in the province. The largest group is Chettri (14.8%) followed by Hilll Brahmins (12.1%), Rai (11.3%), Limbu (8%), Tamangs (4.7%) etc. In terms of religious population, 67% are Hindu predominantly followed by Kirat (17%), Buddism (9.2%) and Islam (3.2%). Out of the total population of the province (4534943) 60% of the population are residing in the urban area.


As per Economic Survey (2018/19), Province 1 contributes 15% to national GDP. Nepal has commenced system of measuring GDP by provinces from fiscal year 2018/19. Accordingly, it is estimated to have a growth rate of 6.5 in the fiscal year 2018/19. Population under absolute poverty here is 12.4% and multi dimensional poverty rate is 19.7%. According to Nepal labor force survey (2017/18) unemployment rate in the province is 10.2%.

There are 535 commercial banks, 161 development banks and 39 finance companies and their branches. Similarly, there are 228 life and 115 non life insurance companies and their branches in the province.

Agriculture is the mainstay of province economy, providing a livelihood for three-fourths of the population and accounting 38% of GDP. Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce including jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. There are 714 industries registered under department of industry. Out of total number of industries Agriculture and forestry industry shares the highest number i.e. 114 (15.96%). Province 1 contributes 22% to the total paddy production of Nepal. Similarly, maize production in the province contributes 29.3% of national production.

Province 1 has considerable scope for exploiting its potential in hydropower and tourism. It has a large hydro potentiality of 34000 MW. Out of total potentiality only 193.2 MW of hydropower is generated up to mid July 2018/19. Similarly, province collects the highest amount (52.4%) of revenue from mountaineering.

Province Overview

Area ( 25905
Capital Biratnagar
Administrative Division
Districts 14
Metropolitan City 1
Sub-Metropolitan City 2
Municipality 46
Gaun Palika 88
Total No. of Wards 1157
Voters and Election 2074
Total no. of voters 2684488
Male 1351941
Female 1332539
TG 7
Constituenties 28
Total Population (2011) 4534943
Male 2166536
Female 2368407
Sex Ratio (M/F) 90.32
Number of Household 991750
Average Household Size 4.60
Population Density (persons/ 211
Population by Type of Local Unit
Metropolitan City 214663
Sub-Metropolitan City 278222
Municipality 2147061
Gaun Palika 1859946
Under 14 Population (%) 32.9
Population 15-59 yrs (%) 58.5
Elderly Population 60+ (%) 8.7
Annual Growth Rate (%)
Household by Ownership of House (2011)
Own 865693
Rented 96068
Using wood/firewood as type of cooking fuel 664953
Using Electricity as type of cooking fuel 30752
With access to safe drinking water* 436316
With access to Toilet Facilities 687220
With access to Internet 15715
With access to Mobile Phone 647167
With access to Television 385638
With access to Electricity for lighting 652770
Household with Female ownership in
Both house & land 137048
Land only 125410
Neither house nor land 723423
Socio-Economic Indicators
Literacy (%) (NMICS 2019)
Total 71.2
Male 79.3
Female 63.9
Number of Schools (Public) 2018/19
L_Basic 5377
U_Basic 2168
Basic 5395
Secondary 1178
Higher Secondary 521
Number of Schools (Private)
L_Basic 1294
U_Basic 922
Basic 1300
Secondary 654
Higher Secondary 121
Number of Students (Public)
L_Basic 388015
U_Basic 218412
Secondary 135681
Higher Secondary 96848
Number of Students (Private)
L_Basic 177824
U_Basic 81022
Secondary 39488
Higher Secondary 13095
NER 2018/19
L-Basic 96.9
U_Basic 93.4
Basic 95.2
Secondary 72.5
Higher Secondary 24.8
Agriculture (FY 017/18)
Production of Major Cereal Crops (MT)2017/18
Paddy 1,108,606
Maize 747,684
Wheat 188,680
Oil Seed       47,492
Potato     920,923
Sugarcane 364,486
Production of Pulses  40,469
Production of Spices    145,080
Production of Vegetables (MT)     40,310
Productio of Milk (MT)    416,337
Production Eggs in number (000)   288,959
Production of Fish (Kg) 7,384,627
Meat Production (MT) 66,583
Production of Wool (MT) 55,181
Annual Sales of Chemical Fertilizers (017/18)       57,785
Health Service
Number of Hospitals 18
Primary health care center (PHCC) 41
Health Care Centers 648
Female Health Care Volunteer 8578
Road Connectivity
Total Road Length (Km) 2389.08
Population Influenced per Km of Road 26813
Road Density (Km/100 161


Local Governments in Data

MunicipalitiesArea PopulationSchoolsHospitalsDetails
Arjundhara Municipaltiy 109.78 sq km6020558-View More
Barahachettra Municipality222.09 sq km7740759-View More
Belaka Municipality 344 sq km4238667-View More
Belbari Municipality 70.1 sq km6589246-View More
Bhadrapur Municipality 96.35 sq km65533611View More
Bhojpur Municipality 151.51 sq km27204501View More
Biratnagar Metro City 76.99 sq km214663771View More
Birtamod Municipality 78.24 sq km8187878-View More
Chainpur Municipality 223.69 sq km2730864-
Chaudandigadhi Municipality 283.78 sq km4857471-
Damak Municipality 70.86 sq km7510251-
Deumai Municipality 191.63 sq km3293760-
Dhankuta Municipality 110.8 sq km36619571
Dharan Sub Metro City 192.32 sq km1208041421
Dharmadevi Municipality 132.82 sq km1823541-
Duhabi Municipality 76.67 sq km5621649-
Gauradaha Municipality 149.86 sq km5303350-
Haleshi Tuwachung Municipality280.17 sq km2953289-
Illam Sub Metro City 173.32 sq km 48536821
Inaruwa Municipality 77.92 sq km63593691
Itahari Sub Metro City 93.78 sq km140517162-
Kankai Municipality 80.98 sq km4014130-
Katari Municipality 424.89 sq km561461061
Khandbari Municipality 122.78 sq km31177621
Laligurans Municipality 90.27 sq km1693435-
Letang Municipality 119.23 sq km3205350-
Madi Municipality 110.1 sq km1447037-
Mahalaxmi Municipality129.39 sq km2480057-
Mai Municipality 246.11 sq km3257661-
Mechinagar Municipaltiy 192.85 sq km111737100-
Myanglug Municipality 100.21 sq km19659381
Pakhribas Municipality 144.29 sq km2207841-
Panchkhapan Municipality 148.03 sq km1752142-
Pathari Sanischare Municipality 79.81 sq km6113250-
Phidim Municipality 192.5 sq km49201891
Phungling Municipality 125.57 sq km26406611
Ramdhuni Municipality 91.69 sq km5172228-
Rangeli Municipality 111.78 sq km52013461
Ratuwamai Municipality 142.15 sq km5538063-
Rupakot Majhuwagadhi Municipality 246.51 sq km469031001
Shadananda Municipality 241.15 sq km3160667-
Shivasatakshi Municipality 145.87 sq km6459663-
Siddhicharan Municipality 167.88 sq km27995581
Solududhkunda Municipality538.09 sq km20399731
Sunawarshi Municipality 106.4 sq km5075859-
Sundarharaicha Municipality 110.16 sq km8051875-
Suryodaya Municipality 252.52 sq km5670797-
Triyuga Municipality 547.43 sq km875571191
Urlabari Municipality 74.62 sq km54696521

Human Development Index (HDI)

Infant Mortality Rate

Literacy Rate (%)

Per Capita Income (USD)

Economic Growth Rate (%)

Sector-wise Data Overview of Province 1

Fast Facts of Province 1

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Total Population


Household with Access to Internet


Total Household


Popn with Access to Electricity


Urban Population


Child Marriage Before 18 (women)


Agriculture Land


Ownership of Mobile Phone




Electricity Consumers


Birth Registration

1140 Km

Black topped Road (SSRN/2018)

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