Lumbini Province: A Data Overview

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Lumbini Province


Lumbini Province lies in the mid western part of the country. It has an area of 22, and that is 15.11% of the total area of the country. 45% of provincial land is covered by forest including Banke and Bardia National Parks and some parts of Dhorpatan hunting reserve. 29% land is arable and 14% of the Province land is utilized for housing purpose. It is bordered by India in the south, Putha himal of Rukum East in the north and Rampur of Palpa district in the east to Rajapur of Bardia district in the west.

Topographically, the province can be divided into five main regions starting from the North, viz. 1) High Himalayas (3.1%), 2) High Mountains (9.1%), 3) Middle Mountains (32.2%), Siwalik region (27.9%) and 4) Terai region (27.6%).

43.3 percent provincial land is at an altitude of less than 500 meters. This area is mostly covered by fertile land and dense forest. 20.4 percent of area is at an altitude of 500-1000 meters. 24.2 percent land is at an altitude of 1000 to 2000meters. Similarly 7.4 percent land is at an altitude of 2000 to 3000 meters and land above 3000 meters altitude is 4.9 percent.

Apart from the topographical divisions, administratively there are 12 Districts. As per the new constitutional provision there are 109 local governments composed of 4 sub-metropolitan cities, 32 municipalities and 73 rural-municipalities with 983 wards.

Social and Cultural Diversity

Total population of the province is 4499272. Out of total population 51.68% of the provincial population is residing in the urban area. The largest ethnic group is Tharu (15.2%). Similarly, there are 15.1% Magar, 13.8% Chettri, 12.5% Brahman (Hill), and 6.9% Muslim.


As per Economic Survey (2019/20), Lumbini Province contributes 14% to national GDP. Measuring GDP by provinces it is estimated to have a growth rate of 2.0% in the fiscal year 2019/20.

There are 614 commercial banks, 307 development banks, 34 finance companies, 900 Microfinance companies. Similarly, there are 272 life and 190 non life insurance companies and their branches in the province.

Agriculture, forest and tourism are the mainstay of province economy. Productivity of paddy in the province is 3.91 MT per ha, which is above the national average productivity of 3.8MT per ha (CBS; Rice production estimate for fiscal year 2018/19). Out of the total paddy production in the country Lumbini Province comprises 21.4%. Similarly 24.7% of Wheat and 13.9% Maize is produced in the province.

316000 ha of agriculture land are irrigated through 541 irrigation systems in the province. Similarly, there are various irrigation projects under construction, namely, Bheri Babai diversion, Babai, Sikta. After completion all these big irrigation projects will irrigate approximately 140000 ha of land.

There are 522 industries registered under department of industry. Out of total number of industries Production based industry shares the highest number i.e. 418. While there are only 24 Agriculture and forestry based industry.

There are 14715 companies registered under company act in the province. Similarly, 68334 small, cottage and micro level industries are registered in the province. These industries create an estimated 477654 employment.

Lumbini Province has seen a considerable growth in electrification. According to Nepal Electricity Authority report 91% household in the province are electrified. Total number of electricity consumers in the province is 457992, consuming 370.8 Million MWh of energy annually. According to NEA, Distribution and Consumer Service Directorate 93% of consumers are domestic users; loss of electricity in the province is 12.17% for the year 2076/77. Out of the total loss in distribution provincial office, Gularia contributes the highest loss percentage of 25.02% (2076/77).

8931 km of road is constructed in the Province. Out of which 5293 km is blacktopped.

There are 5707 schools in the province with 1255141 students including 621735 girls and 633406 boys. All together there are 23627 teachers (temporary and permanent) working in various levels of schools.

There are 20 government hospitals, 30 primary health care centers, 570 health posts and 363 birthing centers in the province.

Province Overview

Area ( 22288
Capital Butwal
Administrative Division
Districts 12
Metropolitan City
Sub-Metropolitan City 4
Municipality 32
Gaun Palika 73
Total No. of Wards 983
Voters and Election 2074
Total no. of voters 2461514
Male 1236472
Female 1225019
TG 23
Constituenties 26
Total Population (2011) 4499272
Male 2140316
Female 2358956
Sex Ratio (M/F) 80.18
Number of Household 885203
Average Household Size 4.53
Population Density (persons/ 208
Population by Type of Local Unit
Metropolitan City
Sub-Metropolitan City 575385
Municipality 1740672
Gaun Palika 2140128
Under 14 Population (%) 36.3
Population 15-59 yrs (%) 55.8
Elderly Population 60+ (%) 7.9
Annual Growth Rate (%)
Household by Ownership of House (2011)
Own 827223
Rented 75787
Using wood/firewood as type of cooking fuel 669567
Using Electricity as type of cooking fuel 23640
With access to safe drinking water* 434811
With access to Toilet Facilities 516076
Without access to Toilet Facilities 394412
With access to Internet 11851
With access to Mobile Phone 591305
With access to Radio 470333
With access to Television 249589
With access to Electricity for lighting 586685
Household by Type of Foundation of House
Mud bonded bricks/stone as foundation of house 557418
Cement bonded bricks/ stone as type of foundation of house 135952
RCC with pillar 59622
Wooden pillar 121894
Household with Female ownership in
Both house & land 97513
Land only 72372
Neither house nor land 739504
Socio-Economic Indicators
Literacy (%) (NMICS 2019)
Total 66.4
Male 75.5
Female 58.3
Number of Schools (Public) 2018/19
L_Basic 4564
U_Basic 1854
Basic 4584
Secondary 1023
Higher Secondary 431
Number of Schools (Private)
L_Basic 1074
U_Basic 706
Basic 1074
Secondary 514
Higher Secondary 146
Number of Students (Public)
L_Basic 513835
U_Basic 258930
Secondary 141297
Higher Secondary 98796
Number of Students (Private)
L_Basic 184473
U_Basic 77716
Secondary 37404
Higher Secondary 16744
NER 2018/19
L-Basic 96.8
U_Basic 86
Basic 91.4
Secondary 63.7
Higher Secondary 22
Agriculture (FY 017/18)
Production of Major Cereal Crops (MT)2017/18
Paddy 1120131
Maize 355081
Wheat 484582
Production of Major Cash Crops (MT) 2017/18
Oil Seed 62408
Potato 311984
Sugarcane 465807
Production of Pulses 110788
Production of Spices 62409
Production of Vegetables (MT) 556991
Productio of Milk (MT) 367876
Production Eggs in number (000) 169818
Production of Fish (Kg) 11777739
Production of Wool (MT) 97002
Annual Sales of Chemical Fertilizers (017/18) 84548
Health Service
Number of Hospitals 19
Primary health care center (PHCC) 31
Health Care Centers 570
Female Health Care Volunteer 8718
Road Connectivity
Total Road Length (Km) 2450.02
Population Influenced per Km of Road 22183
Road Density (Km/100 159


Local Governments in Data

(sq km)
Bhumikasthan Municipality Arghakhanchi159.133264066-View More
Sandhikharka Municipality Arghakhanchi129.4241079791
Shitaganga Municipality Arghakhanchi610.4343373115-
Kohalpur Municipality Banke184.267064757-
Nepalgunj Sub Metropolitian City Banke85.941389511483
Bansgadhi Municipality Bardia206.085587560-
Barbardiya Municipality Bardia226.096801257-
Gulariya Municipality Bardia118.2166679551
Madhuwan Municipality Bardia129.734643742-
Rajapur Municipality Bardia127.085955351-
Thakurbaba Municipality Bardia104.574431648-
Ghorahi Sub Metropolitian City Dang522.211561641741
Lamahi Municipality Dang326.6647655471
Tulsipur Sub Metropolitian City Dang384.631415281591
Musikot Municipality Gulmi114.743280268-
Resunga Municipality Gulmi83.7432548581
Banganga Municipality Kapilbastu233.6875242691
Buddhabhumi Municipality Kapilbastu366.676494969-
Kapilvastu Municipality Kapilbastu126.9176394721
Krishnanagar Municipality Kapilbastu96.6662360551
Maharajgunj Municipality Kapilbastu112.215480072-
Shivraj Municipality Kapilbastu284.076678173-
Bardghat Municipality Nawalparasi West162.0561472621
Ramgram Municipality Nawalparasi West128.3256845591
Sunwal Municipality Nawalparasi West139.15579054-
Rampur Municipality Palpa123.3435396601
Tansen Municipality Palpa109.850405771
Pyuthan Municipality Pyuthan128.9638449621
Swargadwari Municipality Pyuthan224.73094063-
Rolpa Municipality Rolpa270.4232759731
Butwal Sub Metropolitian City Rupandehi101.611387421041
Devdaha Municipality Rupandehi136.955352350-
Lumbini Sanskritik Municipality Rupandehi112.217249775-
Sainamaina Municipality Rupandehi162.185582233-
Siddharthanagar Municipality Rupandehi36.0363483701
Tilottama Municipality Rupandehi126.1910014985-

Human Development Index (HDI)

Population under absolute poverty (%)

Literacy Rate (age 15-24) (%)

Per Capita Income (USD) at base price 2068

Human Poverty Index

Sector-wise Data Overview of Lumbini Province

Fast Facts of Lumbini Province

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Total Household



Household with Access to Internet



Total Population



Popn with Access to Electricity



Urban Population


Child Marriage Before 18 (women)



Arable Land (ha)



Ownership of Mobile Phone






Electricity Consumers



Birth Registration



Local Roads Network (km)

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Focusing on various sectors related to development of the country, our team has been actively involved in disseminating information about districts since 1999 AD through various editions of Data Profile’s namely District Development Profile of Nepal (2001), District Demographic Profile of Nepal (2002), District Development Profile of Nepal (2004), National Policies of Nepal, Development Profile of Nepal (2008) & Energy Outlook of Nepal (2011).

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